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Summary of Enzymes

Enzymes are proteins that influence substrate molecules and reduce the energy necessary for a chemical action to occur by stabilizing the transition state. This stabilization hurries up reaction rates and makes them happen at physiologically significant rates. Enzymes bind substrates at key locations in their structure called active sites. they're typically highly specific and only bind certain substrates sure as shooting reactions. Without enzymes, most metabolic reactions would take for much longer and wouldn't be fast enough to sustain life.


There are six main categories of enzymes: oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases. Each category carries out a general variety of reaction but catalyzes many alternative specific reactions within their own category. Some enzymes, called apoenzymes, are inactive until they're absolute to a cofactor, which activates the enzyme. A cofactor are often either metal ions (e.g., Zn) or organic compounds that attach, either covalently or noncovalently, to the enzyme. The cofactor and apoenzyme complex is termed a holoenzyme. Enzymes are proteins comprised of amino acids linked together in one or more polypeptide chains. This sequence of amino acids in a very polypeptide chain is named the first structure. This, in turn, determines the three- dimensional structure of the enzyme, including the form of the situation. The secondary structure of a protein describes the localized polypeptide chain structures, e.g., α-helices or β-sheets.