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Summary of HAP :-

Chapter 1 :-

A cell is the smallest functional unit of an organism. Groups of cells having the same physical characteristics and performing similar specialized function, are described as tissues. Various types of tissues join to form an organ, and a system consists of a number of such organs and tissues. Although each system carries out one or more of the vital functions of the body, none of the systems can exist in isolation because of specialization of cells.

Chapter 2 :-

The cell is a basic and the smallest functional, living unit of the body tissue. Human body is composed of trillions (about 37 trillions) of cells. The cells provide structure and support for body. Cells are basic building blocks of all living things. Every cell in the body needs oxygen to metabolize the nutrients and release energy from food. The cells carry out specialized functions and carry genetic material and aid in reproduction. Cytology is the branch of science which is concerned with the study of cells. In an unicellular organism, a single cell performs all the functions while in multicellular organisms, cells get specialized to form different tissues, performing a specific functions. The first cells consisted of little more than an organic molecule such as RNA inside a lipid membrane. One cell called the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) gave rise to all subsequent life on earth.

Chapter 3 :-

In a tissue, the cells remain in place due to their attachment with other cell, basement membrane and binding connective tissue. Different tissues organize to form organs and organs organize to form systems of the body. Every cell in the body is bathed in a fluid called extracellular fluid (ECF). This provides a medium for transporting the substances and carrying out chemical reactions. Thus, there are microscopic spaces between the cells in a tissue, where this extracellular fluid (also called as interstitial fluid) is present.

Chapter 4 :-

Skeleton constitutes the bony framework of the body. The skeletal system consists of about 206 bones to make a strong, movable living framework for the body. It supports and protects softer, delicate tissues and organs and they form joints for the movement of the body. The bones making up the skeleton are of various types viz. long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones etc.

Chapter 5 :-

Blood constitutes about 8 per cent of the body weight. For a 70 kg man, the volume of blood is expected to be 5.6 lit. Blood in the vessels is always in motion. The flow is such that the cells have a fairly constant environment.

Chapter 6 :-

The good health and survival of an individual depends upon the prevention of attacks by disease producing micro-organisms, known as pathogens. It is also essential to neutralize the toxic products produced by pathogens or to guard the body from other harmful things such as ultraviolet rays or to cure the body from wounds, cuts, burns etc. The lymphatic system is responsible for certain defense mechanisms. To protect the body, body resistance is essential. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. Immunity takes part in the activation of specific lymphocytes which destroy the foreign particles or pathogens.

Chapter 7 :-

Every cell in the body requires oxygen to metabolize the nutrients and release energy from food. Cardiovascular system supply oxygen and food to all the body cells Cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels and the blood that blood vessels transport. It works to transport oxygen and other nutrients to all the organs and tissues in the body and in exchange removes carbon dioxide and other waste products, transporting them to excretory organs for excretion. Thus, there is continuous flow of blood throughout the human body. The vital role of cardiovascular system is maintaining homeostasis and depends on the continuous and controlled movement of blood through capillaries to permit every tissue and reach every cell.

Chapter 8 :-

Our body tissues utilize inhaled oxygen for metabolic purposes and produce carbon dioxide in the process. The main aim of the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and supply it to body tissues and take out CO2 from the tissues and expel it into the atmosphere.

The lungs expand to take air from the atmosphere which is rich in oxygen. The oxygen enters the lungs and is transferred to the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. This blood which is now rich in oxygen, delivers it to the tissues. The tissues utilize oxygen, and produce CO, which passes into the blood. Blood rich in CO is called venous blood. The venous blood brings the CO, to the lungs where the CO, is diffused into the lungs and the lungs discharge it into the atmosphere.