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Syllabus of Unit 2 :-

1. Tablets :-
  • Introduction, ideal characteristics of tablets, classification of tablets. Excipients, Formulation of tablets, granulation methods, compression and processing problems. Equipments and tablet tooling.
  • Tablet coating : Types of coating, coating materials, formulation of coating composition, methods of coating, equipment employed and defects in coating.
  • Quality control tests : In process and finished product tests

2. Liquid orals : Formulation and manufacturing consideration of syrups and elixirs suspensions and emulsions; Filling and packaging; evaluation of liquid orals official in pharmacopoeia.

1. Tablets

A tablet (also called a pill) could be a pharmaceutical oral dosage form (oral solid dosage, or OSD) or solid unit dosage form. Tablets is also defined because the solid unit dosage variety of medicament or medicaments with suitable excipients. It comprises a combination of active substances and excipients, usually in powder form, pressed or compacted from a powder into a solid dose.

Tablets are prepared either by molding or by compression. The excipients can include diluents, binders or granulating agents, glidants (flow aids) and lubricants to confirm efficient tabletting; disintegrants to push tablet break-up within the digestive tract; sweeteners or flavours to boost taste; and pigments to create the tablets visually attractive or aid in visual identification of an unknown tablet. A polymer coating is usually applied to create the tablet smoother and easier to swallow, to regulate the discharge rate of the active ingredient, to form it more proof against the environment (extending its shelf life), or to reinforce the tablet's appearance. Medicinal tablets were originally made within the shape of a disk of whatever color their components determined, but are now made in many shapes and colours to assist distinguish different medicines. Tablets are often stamped with symbols, letters, and numbers, which enable them to be identified. Sizes of tablets to be swallowed range from some millimetres to a couple of centimetre.

2. Tablet Coating

Tablet coating is that the process where coating material is applied to the surface of the tablet to realize the required properties of dosage form over the uncoated variety. the benefits of coating are listed below.
  • Improving taste, odor, and color of the drug
  • Improving easy swallowing by the patient
  • Improving product stability
  • To protect against the gastric environment 
  • To improve mechanical resistance of the dosage form
  • Modifying release properties

There are three main processes for tablet coating: sugar coating, film coating, and enteric coating. Various classes of pharmaceutical coating materials employed in tablet coating betting on the phase of coating are reached.

Coating materials is categorized as follows:
  • Binders (acacia, gelatin, cellulose derivatives)
  • Fillers (calcium carbonate, titania, talc)
  • Colorants (dyes, iron oxides, titanium dioxide)
  • Antiadhesives (talc)