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Syllabus of Unit 1 :-

1. Antihistaminic agents : Histamine, receptors and their distribution in the human body

2. H1-Antagonists : Diphenhydramine hydrochloride*, Dimenhydrinate, Doxylamines cuccinate, Clemastine fumarate, Diphenylphyraline hydrochloride, Tripelenamine hydrochloride, Chlorcyclizine hydrochloride, Meclizine hydrochloride, Buclizine hydrochloride, Chlorpheniramine maleate, Triprolidine hydrochloride*, Phenidamine tartarate, Promethazine hydrochloride*, Trimeprazine tartrate, Cyproheptadine hydrochloride, Azatidine maleate, Astemizole, Loratadine, Cetirizine, Levocetrazine Cromolyn sodium

3. H2-antagonists : Cimetidine*, Famotidine, Ranitidin.

4. Gastric Proton pump inhibitors : Omeprazole, Lansoprazole, Rabeprazole, Pantoprazole

5. Anti-neoplastic agents :-
  • Alkylating agents : Meclorethamine*, Cyclophosphamide, Melphalan, Chlorambucil, Busulfan, Thiotepa
  • Antimetabolites : Mercaptopurine*, Thioguanine, Fluorouracil, Floxuridine, Cytarabine, Methotrexate*, Azathioprine
  • Antibiotics : Dactinomycin, Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin, Bleomycin
  • Plant products : Etoposide, Vinblastin sulphate, Vincristin sulphate
  • Miscellaneous : Cisplatin, Mitotane.

1. H1-Antagonists

H1 antagonists, also called H1 blockers, are a category of medicines that block the action of histamine at the H1 receptor, helping to relieve allergic reactions. Agents where the most therapeutic effect is mediated by negative modulation of histamine receptors are termed antihistamines; other agents may have antihistaminergic action but aren't true antihistamines.

2. Gastric Proton pump inhibitors

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) block the gastric H,K-ATPase, inhibiting gastric acid secretion. This effect enables healing of peptic ulcers, esophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett’s esophagus, and syndrome, moreover because the eradication of Helicobacter pylori as a part of combination regimens. this text reviews the structure and performance of the gastric H,K-ATPase and therefore the inhibitors of this enzyme, the PPIs.

3. Anti-neoplastic agents

  • Antineoplastic drugs are medications used to treat cancer. Other names for antineoplastic drugs are anticancer, chemotherapy, chemo, cytotoxic, or hazardous drugs.
  • These drugs come in many forms, including liquids or pills.

4. Anti-Metabolites

Antimetabolites are called a “cytotoxic” style of drug because they kill cells. They work by mimicking the molecules that a cell must grow. Cells are tricked into taking within the drugs then using the antimetabolites rather than their normal building blocks of genetic material: RNA and DNA. With the drugs on board, the cells can not copy their DNA, in order that they can’t divide into new cells. Because antimetabolites target cells only as they're dividing, these medications are best against tumors that are growing quickly