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Syllabus of Unit 2 :-

  1. Vasodilators : Amyl nitrite, Nitroglycerin*, Pentaerythritol tetranitrate, Isosorbide dinitrite*, Dipyridamole.
  2. Calcium channel blockers : Verapamil, Bepridil hydrochloride, Diltiazem hydrochloride, Nifedipine, Amlodipine, Felodipine, Nicardipine, Nimodipine
  3. Diuretics : Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Acetazolamide*, Methazolamide, Dichlorphenamide. Thiazides: Chlorthiazide*, Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydroflumethiazide, Cyclothiazide, Loop diuretics: Furosemide*, Bumetanide, Ethacrynic acid. Potassium sparing Diuretics: Spironolactone, Triamterene, Amiloride. Osmotic Diuretics: Mannitol
  4. Anti-hypertensive Agents : Timolol, Captopril, Lisinopril, Enalapril, Benazepril hydrochloride, Quinapril hydrochloride, Methyldopate hydrochloride,* Clonidine hydrochloride, Guanethidine monosulphate, Guanabenz acetate, Sodium nitroprusside, Diazoxide, Minoxidil, Reserpine, Hydralazine hydrochloride.

1. Vasodilators 

Vasodilators are medications that open (dilate) blood vessels. They affect the muscles within the walls of the arteries and veins, preventing the muscles from tightening and therefore the walls from narrowing.
As a result, blood flows more easily through the vessels. the center doesn't should pump as hard, reducing force per unit area.
Some drugs wont to treat hypertension, like calcium channel blockers also dilate blood vessels. But the vasodilators that employment directly on the vessel walls are hydralazine and minoxidil.

2. Calcium channel blockers

Calcium channel blockers are medications accustomed lower pressure. They work by preventing calcium from entering the cells of the center and arteries. Calcium causes the guts and arteries to squeeze (contract) more strongly. By blocking calcium, calcium channel blockers allow blood vessels to relax and open.

Some calcium channel blockers also can slow the guts rate, which might further lower vital sign. The medications might also be prescribed to alleviate pain (angina) and control an irregular heartbeat.

3. Diuretics 

Diuretics, sometimes called water pills, help rid your body of salt (sodium) and water. Most of those medicines help your kidneys release more sodium into your urine. The sodium helps remove water from your blood, decreasing the number of fluid flowing through your veins and arteries. This reduces pressure level.

Types of diuretics - There are three kinds of diuretics :-
  1. Thiazide
  2. Loop
  3. Potassium sparing