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Summary of Study of Infectious Disease :-

Infectious disease epidemiology is the study of how and why infectious diseases emerge and spread among different populations, and what strategies can prevent or contain the spread of disease at the population level. Students in our Infectious Disease Epidemiology concentration study the biology of viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents, as well as the arthropod vectors that can carry and transmit diseases, such as ticks and mosquitoes. Our students also learn statistical methods to analyze data and explore disease transmission systems, and evidence-based approaches to preventing or containing disease transmission.

They recognize that humans, plants, animals, and non-living parts of the environment such as climate and water, are inseparable when exploring infectious disease epidemiology. This One Health approach prepares our graduates to address challenges from an ecological perspective, understanding that preventing the spread of disease from animals to human populations requires preserving natural resources and investing in the health of ecosystems.

Epidemiologists focus their study on population groups (or “herds”) rather than on individuals. In addition, infectious disease epidemiology also considers the interaction between individuals within the population group. For non-infectious diseases, each case and his/her risk factors are personal and independent from the neighbor (your neighbor’s risk factors for heart disease have no influence on your risk factors). On the contrary, for infectious disease, the interaction between cases and contacts is of prime importance; this special feature of infectious disease epidemiology is discussed in the section transmission and basic concepts important to infectious diseases.

Although not entirely specific of infectious disease epidemiology, some characteristics are more often found in this field of study; for example, infectious disease epidemiology is:
  1. The closest to “shoe leather” epidemiology, meaning going into the community, talking to patients, contacts, practitioners, observing the environment (living conditions, activities, food preparation, water supply, etc.)
  2. Direct understanding and “closeness” to data
  3. Small-scale investigations Immediate results
  4. Easy understanding of etiology

Infectious diseases are a major cause of human suffering in terms of both morbidity and mortality throughout human history. The spread of infectious diseases was influenced by various steps in human civilization. For example, parasitic and zoonotic diseases have become more common after domestication of animals, airborne viral and bacterial infections after large settlements and urbanization. Throughout the ages, humanity suffered from large pandemics such as plague, smallpox, cholera, and influenza but also from the more silent killers of chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis.

Morbidity due to infectious diseases is very common in spite of the progress accomplished in recent decades. According to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) annual estimates, there are globally 300–500 million cases of malaria, 333 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas), 33 million cases of HIV/AIDS, 14 million people infected with tuberculosis, and 3–5 million cases of cholera