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Summary of Microbial Culture Sterility Testing :-

Sterilization refers to any process that removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life (particularly microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, spores, and unicellular eukaryotic organisms) and other biological agents such as prions present in or on a specific surface, object, or fluid.[1] Sterilization can be achieved through various means, including heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, and filtration. Sterilization is distinct from disinfection, sanitization, and pasteurization, in that those methods reduce rather than eliminate all forms of life and biological agents present. After sterilization, an object is referred to as being sterile or aseptic.

1. Foods
One of the first steps toward modernized sterilization was made by Nicolas Appert, who discovered that application of heat over a suitable period slowed the decay of foods and various liquids, preserving them for safe consumption for a longer time than was typical. Canning of foods is an extension of the same principle and has helped to reduce food borne illness ("food poisoning"). Other methods of sterilizing foods include food irradiation[2][3] and high pressure (pascalization).[4]

2. Medicine and surgery
Apparatus to sterilize surgical instruments (1914–1918) In general, surgical instruments and medications that enter an already aseptic part of the body (such as the bloodstream, or penetrating the skin) must be sterile. Examples of such instruments include scalpels, hypodermic needles, and artificial pacemakers. This is also essential in the manufacture of parenteral pharmaceuticals.

Preparation of injectable medications and intravenous solutions for fluid replacement therapy requires not only sterility but also well-designed containers to prevent entry of adventitious agents after initial product sterilization.

3. Spacecraft
There are strict international rules to protect the contamination of Solar System bodies from biological material from Earth. Standards vary depending on both the type of mission and its destination; the more likely a planet is considered to be habitable, the stricter the requirements are.

Many components of instruments used on spacecraft cannot withstand very high temperatures, so techniques not requiring excessive temperatures are used as tolerated, including heating to at least 120 °C (248 °F), chemical sterilization, oxidization, ultraviolet, and irradiation.

4. Dry :-
Dry heat was the first method of sterilization and is a longer process than moist heat sterilization. The destruction of microorganisms through the use of dry heat is a gradual phenomenon. With longer exposure to lethal temperatures, the number of killed microorganisms increases. Forced ventilation of hot air can be used to increase the rate at which heat is transferred to an organism and reduce the temperature and amount of time needed to achieve sterility. At higher temperatures, shorter exposure times are required to kill organisms. This can reduce heat-induced damage to food products.