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Summary of Chromatography

Chromatography, technique for separating the components, or solutes, of a mix on the idea of the relative amounts of every solute distributed between a moving fluid stream, called the mobile phase, and a contiguous stationary phase. The mobile phase is also either a liquid or a gas, while the stationary phase is either a solid or a liquid.

Kinetic molecular motion continuously exchanges solute molecules between the 2 phases. If, for a specific solute, the distribution favors the moving fluid, the molecules will spend most of their time migrating with the stream and can be transported off from other species whose molecules are retained longer by the stationary phase.

For a given species, the ratio of the days spent within the moving and stationary regions is adequate the ratio of its concentrations in these regions, called the partition coefficient. (The term adsorption isotherm is commonly used when a solid phase is involved.)

A mixture of solutes is introduced into the system in a very confined region or narrow zone (the origin), whereupon the various species are transported at different rates within the direction of fluid flow. The propulsion for solute migration is that the moving fluid, and therefore the resistive force is that the solute affinity for the stationary phase; the mixture of those forces, as manipulated by the analyst, produces the separation.