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Summary of PH Chemistry :-

Chapter 1 - Introduction to PH Chemistry

Pharmaceutical substances must meet adequate standards because they are directly related to people's health. Product safety, efficacy, and quality can all be addressed by the standards. In pharmaceuticals, quality control begins with the entry of raw materials (such as API and excipients) and continues through each manufacturing process until the product is ready to be shipped on the market. To ensure product quality, each pharmaceutical company employs a dedicated team of quality control analysts who can assess the product's quality using a variety of qualitative and quantitative tests. The role of quality control is critical in determining whether or not the manufactured product meets Pharmacopoeial standards.

Chapter 2 - Volumetric Analysis

Volumetric analysis is an extensively used quantitative analytical technique. As the name recommended, this method rivets measurement of the volume of a solution whose concentration is known and applied to determine the concentration of the analyte.

Chapter 5 - Drug Acting on CNS

The central nervous system (CNS) controls the functions of all tissues of the body. The peripheral nervous system receives thousands of sensory inputs and transmits them to the brain via the spinal cord. The brain processes this incoming information and discards 99% as unimportant.

The CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord, the two parts of the body that contain the vast majority of nerves. The bones of the vertebrae protect the spinal cord; and the bones of the skull, which are corrugated much like an egg carton and serve to absorb impact, protect the brain The features of the human nervous system, including the complexities of the human brain, sometimes make it difficult to predict the exact reaction of a particular patient to a given drug. When a drug is used to affect the nervous system, the Occurrence of many systemic effects is always a possibility because the nervous system affects the entire body.

Chapter 6 - Drug Acting on ANS

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the division of the nervous system that contribute the inside organs (blood vessels, stomach, intestine, liver, kidneys, bladder, genitals, lungs, pupils, eye, heart, and sweat, salivary, digestive glands).

Chapter 7 - Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular system refers to the blood vascular system. It mainly consists of muscular pumping organ called heart and the closed system of blood vessels such as; arteries, veins, and capillaries. This circulatory system allows the blood to circulate and transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones and blood cells along with nutrients such as; amino acids and electrolytes to and from the organs, tissues or cells in the body for providing nourishment and also facilitate the protection against different disease states. The vital role of the cardiovascular system is to maintain homeostasis that depends on the continuous and controlled circulation of blood.

Chapter 8 - Diuretics

Diuretics are the medications that increase the flow of urine (diuresis). These drugs work by removing sodium and chloride from the body through urine. So, diuretics are used effectively for the treatment of hypertension.

Chapter 9 - Hypoglycemic Agents

Hypoglycemic agents are the medications used for the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes is a disease state which impairs the body's ability to maintain blood glucose level. It is characterized by hyperglycemia that occurs due to the defects in the secretion and action of the insulin.

Chapter 10 - Analgesic

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents are the medications used for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Hyperalgesia refers to the enhancement in sensitivity to pain caused by nociceptors or peripheral nerves. Analgesics are the agents which relieve the pain by acting selectively on the CNS and peripheral pain mediators without changing consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. Inflammation is a complex biological response which occurs when the body is exposed to infective agents or to physical or chemical injury. Inflammation is of two types such as acute and chronic. Acute inflammation is short lived and is considered as a positive, protective, healing and renewing mechanism. On the other hand, chronic inflammation is not beneficial.