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## Summary of Weight and Measures

Weight : Weight is a measure of the gravitational force, acting on a body and is directly proportional to its mass.

Measure : Measure is the measurement of volume of any substance.
There are two systems of weights and measures :-
1. The Imperial system
2. The Metric system

1. IMPERIAL SYSTEM
1. It is an old system of weights and measures based on arbitrary and unrelated units like grains, drachms, ounces and gallons.
2. Measure of weight in imperial system: Imperial system is divided into two parts for the purpose of measurement of weight as :-
1. Avoirdupois system
2. Apothecaries system

1. Avoirdupois system : In this system “pound” is the standard unit for weight. Therefore all measures of mass (weight) are derived from the Imperial standard, “pound”(Lb.). For Example :-
1. 1 lb =l6 oz
2. 1 lb = 7000 grains
3. 1 oz. = 7000 /16 grains = 437.5 grains.

2. Apothecaries system : In this system “grain” is the standard unit for weight. Therefore all the measures of mass (weight) are derived from the “grain”. For Example :-
1. 20 grains = 1 Scruple
2. 60 grains = 1 drachm
3. 80 grains. = 1 ounce
4. 8 drachms = 1 ounce
5. 12 ounce = 1 pound
6. 5760 grains = 1 pound

Measurement of Capacity in imperial system
In both Avoirdupois and Apothecaries system, the standard unit for capacity is “gallon”. Therefore all other measures of capacity are derived from gallon. For Example :-
1. 1 gallon = 160 fluid ounces
2. 1/4 th of a gallon = 1 quart = 40 fl.ounce
3. 1/8th of a gallon = 1 pint =20 fl.ounce
4. 1/160th of a gallon = 1 fl. ounce
5. 1/8thofonefl.ounce = 1 fl. drachm
6. 1/60th of one fl.drachm = 1 minim
7. 1 fluid ounce = 480 minims
8. 1 fluid drachm = 60 minims.

METRIC SYSTEM :-
The metric system is used in Indian pharmacopoeia
Measurement of weight in Metric system: In Metric system “Kilogram” is the standard unit for measurement of weight.
Therefore all other measures for weight are derived from kilogram (Kg)
1. 1 Kilogram (Kg) = 1000 grams (g)
2. 1 Hectogram (hg) = 100 grams
3. 1 Decagram (dag) = 10 grams
4. 1 Decigram (dg) 0.1 gram
5. 1 Centigram (cg) = 0.01 gram
6. 1 Milligram (mg) = 0.001 gram
7. 1 Microgram (mcg) = 0.000001 gram
8. 1 gram (g) = 1000 mg
9. 0.1 gram = 100 mg
10. 0.01 gram = 10 mg
11. 0.001 gram = 1 mg