Version  1.0
 File Size  09.60 mb
 File Count  1
 Create Date  July 13, 2022
 Update Date  July 13, 2022
 Telegram  Join Now

You have to wait 15 seconds.

Syllabus of Unit 3 :-

Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents
  1. Terpenoids : Menthol, Citral, Artemisin
  2. Glycosides : Glycyrhetinic acid & Rutin
  3. Alkaloids : Atropine,Quinine,Reserpine,Caffeine
  4. Resins : Podophyllotoxin, Curcumin

1. Terpenoids

The Terpenoids, also referred to as isoprenoids, are an outsized and diverse class of present organic chemicals derived from the 5-carbon compound isoprene, and also the isoprene polymers called terpenes. While sometimes used interchangeably with "terpenes", terpenoids contain additional functional groups, usually containing oxygen. Terpenoids are the most important class of plant secondary metabolites, representing about 60% of known natural products. Many terpenoids have substantial pharmacological bioactivity and are therefore of interest to medicinal chemists.

Plant terpenoids are used for his or her aromatic qualities and play a task in traditional herbal remedies. Terpenoids contribute to the scent of eucalyptus, the flavors of cinnamon, cloves, and ginger, the yellow modify sunflowers, and therefore the red colourize tomatoes. Well-known terpenoids include citral, menthol, camphor, salvinorin A within the plant Salvia divinorum, ginkgolide and bilobalide found in Ginkgo biloba and therefore the cannabinoids found in cannabis. The provitamin beta carotene may be a terpene derivative called a carotenoid.

2. Glycosides

A Glycoside may be a molecule within which a sugar is certain to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store chemicals within the style of inactive glycosides. These will be activated by enzyme hydrolysis, which causes the sugar part to be broken off, making the chemical available to be used. Many such plant glycosides are used as medications. Several species of Heliconius butterfly are capable of incorporating these plant compounds as a style of chemical defence against predators. In animals and humans, poisons are often guaranteed to sugar molecules as a part of their elimination from the body.

In formal terms, a glycoside is any molecule within which a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a different group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides are often linked by an O- (an O-glycoside), N- (a glycosylamine), S-(a thioglycoside), or C- (a C-glycoside) glycosidic bond. per the IUPAC, the name "C-glycoside" could be a misnomer; the popular term is "C-glycosyl compound". The given definition is that the one employed by IUPAC, which recommends the Haworth projection to properly assign stereochemical configurations.