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Summary of Carbohydrate :-

Carbohydrates, because the name suggest, were defined as a group of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen during which the latter two elements are within the same proportion as in water and were expressed by a formula (CH2 O)n , that is, hydrates of carbon.

The term ‘carbohydrates’ arose from the mistaken belief that substances of this sort were hydrates of carbon, because the formula of the many substances could be expressed within the form CX(H2 O)Y , as an example, glucose (C6 H12 O6 ), sucrose (C12 H22 O11), etc. In these examples, the hydrogen and oxygen are present within the same ratio as in water. But this definition has certain drawbacks as given below: It should be kept in mind that every one organic compounds containing hydrogen and oxygen within the proportion found in water don't seem to be carbohydrates. as an example, formaldehyde HCHO for the current purpose written as C(H2 O); ethanoic acid CH3 COOH written as C3 (H2 O)2 ; and carboxylic acid CH3 CHOHCOOH written as C3 (H2 O)3 are not carbohydrates. Also, an oversized number of carbohydrates like rhamnose (C6 H12O5 ), cymarose (C7 H14O4 ), digitoxose (C6 H12O4 ), etc., are known which don't contain the same old proportions of hydrogen to oxygen.

Finally, certain carbohydrates also are known which contain nitrogen or sulphur additionally to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. From the above discussion, it will be concluded that the definitions described above don't seem to be correct; however, carbohydrates are now defined chemically as polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketones or compound that on hydrolyses produce either of the above. Carbohydrates are among the primary products to arise as a result of photosynthesis.

They constitute an outsized proportion of the plant biomass and are responsible, as cellulose, for the rigid cellular framework and, as starch, for providing an important food reserve. Of special pharmacognostical importance is that the undeniable fact that sugars unites with a good variety of other compounds to make glycosides and secondary metabolites. Mucilage, as found in marshmallow root and psyllium seeds, act as water-retaining vehicles, where as gums and mucilage, which are similar in composition and properties, are formed within the plant by injury or stress and usually appear as solidified exudates; both are typically composed of uronic acid and sugar units.

The cell walls of the brown seaweeds and therefore the middle lamellae of upper plant tissues contain polysaccharides consisting almost entirely of uronic acid components. Low relative molecular mass carbohydrates are crystalline, soluble in water and sweet in taste, as an example, glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc. The high relative molecular mass carbohydrates (polymers) are amorphous, tasteless and comparatively less soluble in water, as an example, starch, cellulose, inulin, etc.

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