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Summary of Proteins :-

A protein may be a complex, high relative molecular mass chemical compound that consists of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. The word protein comes from greek ‘protos’ meaning ‘of primary importance’. Proteins are essential to the structure and performance of all living cells. Many proteins are enzymes or subunits of enzymes. Other proteins play structural or mechanical roles, like people who form the struts and joints of the cytoskeleton, serving as biological scaffolds for the mechanical integrity and tissue signaling functions.

In animals they're present in structural material within the kind of collagen (connective tissue), keratin (hair, wool, hairs, feathers, and horns), elastin (epithelial connective tissue), casein (milk), and plasma proteins. Casein, gelatin, heparin, and hemoglobin are pharmaceutically important proteins of animal origin.

The structure of protein may be differentiated into four types :-
  1. Primary structure: the amino-acid sequence
  2. Secondary structure: highly patterned substructures– alpha helix and beta sheet–or segments of chain that assume no stable shape. Secondary structures are locally defined, meaning that there is many alternative secondary motifs present in one single molecule.
  3. Tertiary structure: the shape of one protein molecule; the spatial relationship of the secondary structural motifs to at least one another
  4. Quaternary structure: the form or structure that results from the union of over one molecule, usually called protein subunits during this context, which function as a part of the larger assembly or protein complex.

Proteins are sensitive to their environment. they will only move in their native state, over atiny low pH range, and under solution conditions with a minimum quantity of electrolytes. A protein in its native state is described as folded which isn't in its native state is alleged to be denatured. Denatured proteins generally haven't any well-defined secondary structure. Many proteins denature and can not remain in solution in H2O also they're denatured thanks to heat, changes in pH, treatment of organic solvents or by ultra violet radiation.