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Summary of Study of Crude Drugs :-

Crude drugs are plant or animal drug that contain natural substances that have undergone only the processes of collection and drying. The term natural substances refers to those substances found in nature that haven't had man-made changes made in their molecular structure. they're used as medicine for humans and animals, internally and externally for curing diseases. e.g., Senna and Cinchona.

A crude drug is any present, unrefined substance derived from organic or inorganic sources like plant, animal, bacteria, organs or whole organisms intended to be used within the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in humans or other animals.

To evaluate means to spot it and to work out its quality and purity, the identity of a drug may be established by actual collection of the drug from a plant or animal that has been positively identified.

The evaluation of drug involves variety of methods that will be classified as follows:

1. Organoleptic and morphological evaluation : Evaluation by means of organs of senses; knowing the colour, odor, taste, size, shape and special features like texture.

2. Microscopic : For identification of the pure powdered drug. This method allows more detailed examination of a drug and their identification by their known histological characters. Microscope by the virtue of its property to magnify, permits minute sections under study to enlarge so leaf constants, stomatal index, palisade ratio is determined.

3. Biologic : Pharmacological activities of medicine are evaluated by bioassays. When the estimation of potency of crude drug or its preparations are done by means of measuring its effect on living organisms like bacteria, fungal growth, or tissue, it's called biological effect of the drug, compared to the quality drug. By these methods, a crude drug is assessed and further test are often recommended.

4. Chemical : Chemical assays are best to work out potency and active constituents. It comprises different test and assays. The isolation, purification and identification of active constituents are the methods of evaluation. Quantitative chemical test like definite quantity, saponification value etc. also are covered under these techniques. Physical: Physical constants are applied to active principles. These are helpful in evaluation with relevance moisture content, relative density, density, optic rotation etc.