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Summary of Drug Acting on GIT :-

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract includes the mouth, stomach, bowel (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), bowel (cecum and colon), rectum, anus, and its accompanying exocrine glands (the salivary glands, the pancreas, and also the gallbladder).

Drugs affecting the GI system are utilized in the treatment of gastric acidity, peptic ulcers, and oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), bowel motility disorders (gastroparesis [delayed gastric emptying thanks to partial paralysis of the stomach muscles], constipation, and diarrhea), and for the treatment of nausea and vomiting.

Peptic ulcers

An Ulcer could be a lesion extending through the mucosa and submucosa into deeper structures of the wall of the channel. Ulcers are the results of breakdown of the mucosal barrier (mucus and HCO3–) that normally protects the liner of the digestive tract and/or increased secretion of H+ or pepsin. There are two kinds of peptic ulcers: gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers. Gastric ulcers are commonly found on the lesser curvature between the corpus and antrum of the stomach. they're often caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a gram-negative spiral bacillus, which secretes cytotoxins that disrupt the mucosal barrier causing inflammation and destruction. H. pylori secretes high levels of membrane urease, which converts urea to NH3. NH3 neutralizes gastric acid round the bacterium, allowing it to survive within the acidic lumen of the stomach. Duodenal ulcers are the foremost common ulcers and are often related to increased gastric H+ secretion (but not necessarily). Doudenal ulcers also frequently occur thanks to H. pylori that inhibits somatostatin secretion resulting in increased gastric H+ secretion. there's also decreased HCO3– secretion within the duodenum, which impedes neutralization of the surplus H+ delivered from the stomach.