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Syllabus of Unit 4 :-

Pharmacology of drugs acting on Endocrine system
  1. Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology
  2. Anterior Pituitary hormones- analogues and their inhibitors
  3. Thyroid hormones - analogues and their inhibitors
  4. Hormones regulating plasma calcium level - Parathormone, Calcitonin and Vitamin-D
  5. Insulin, Oral Hypoglycemic agents and glucagon
  6. ACTH and corticosteroids.

1. Endocrine System

The system could be a complex network of glands and organs. It uses hormones to manage and coordinate your body's metabolism, energy, reproduction, growth and development, and response to injury, stress, and mood. the subsequent are integral parts of the endocrine system:

Hypothalamus - The hypothalamus is found at the bottom of the brain, near the optic chiasma where the optic nerves behind each eye cross and meet. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that stimulate or suppress the discharge of hormones within the hypophysis, additionally to controlling water balance, sleep, temperature, appetite, and vital sign.

Pineal body - The ductless gland is found below the nerve pathway, within the middle of the brain. It produces the hormone melatonin, which helps the body know when it is time to sleep.

Pituitary - The endocrine gland is found below the brain. Usually no larger than a pea, the gland controls many functions of the opposite endocrine glands.

Thyroid and parathyroid - The endocrine and parathyroid glands are located ahead of the neck, below the larynx (voice box). The thyroid plays a vital role within the body's metabolism. The parathyroid glands play a crucial role within the regulation of the body's calcium balance.

Thymus - The thymus is found within the upper a part of the chest and produces white blood cells that fight infections and destroy abnormal cells.

Adrenal gland - An adrenal is found on top of every kidney. Like many glands, the adrenal glands work hand-in-hand with the hypothalamus and endocrine gland. The adrenal glands make and release corticosteroid hormones and epinephrine that maintain pressure and regulate metabolism.

Pancreas - The pancreas is found across the rear of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The pancreas plays a task in digestion, furthermore as hormone production. Hormones produced by the pancreas include insulin and glucagon, which regulate levels of glucose.

Ovary - A woman's ovaries are located on either side of the uterus, below the opening of the fallopian tubes (tubes that reach from the uterus to the ovaries). additionally to containing the egg cells necessary for replica, the ovaries also produce estrogen and progesterone.

Testis - A man's testes are located in a very pouch that hangs suspended outside the shape. The testes produce testosterone and sperm.