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Syllabus of Unit 5 :-

1. Pharmacology of drugs acting on endocrine system
  • Androgens and Anabolic steroids
  • Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives
  • Drugs acting on the uterus

2. Bioassay
  • Principles and applications of bioassay
  • Types of bioassay
  • Bioassay of insulin, oxytocin, vasopressin, ACTH, d-tubocuranine, digitalis, histamine and 5-HT

1. Bioassay

A bioassay is an analytical method to see the concentration or potency of a substance by its effect on living animals or plants (in vivo), or on living cells or tissues(in vitro). A bioassay will be either quantal or quantitative, direct or indirect. If the measured response is binary, the assay is quantal, if not, it's quantitative.

A bioassay is also accustomed detect biological hazards or to administer an assessment of the standard of a mix. A bioassay is usually accustomed monitor water quality likewise as wastewater discharges and its impact on the environment. it's also accustomed assess the environmental impact and safety of latest technologies and facilities.

2. Insulin

Insulin may be a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets encoded in humans by the INS gene. it's considered to be the most anabolic hormone of the body. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of glucose from the blood into liver, fat and muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, within the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin within the blood. Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a very large choice of tissues. it's therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules within the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels within the blood have the other effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat.