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Syllabus of Unit 2 :-
General Pharmacology
  1. Pharmacodynamics - Principles and mechanisms of drug action. Receptor theories and classification of receptors, regulation of receptors. drug receptors interactions signal transduction mechanisms, G-protein–coupled receptors, ion channel receptor, transmembrane enzyme linked receptors, transmembrane JAK-STAT binding receptor and receptors that regulate transcription factors, dose response relationship, therapeutic index, combined effects of drugs and factors modifying drug action.
  2. Adverse drug reactions.
  3. Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics)
  4. Drug discovery and clinical evaluation of new drugs - Drug discovery phase, preclinical evaluation phase, clinical trial phase, phases of clinical trials and pharmacovigilance.

What is Pharmacodynamics ?

Pharmacodynamics is that the study of a drug's molecular, biochemical, and physiologic effects or actions. It comes from the Greek words "pharmakon," meaning "drug," and "dynamikos," meaning "power." All drugs produce their effects by interacting with biological structures or targets at the molecular level to induce a change in how the target molecule functions in respect to subsequent intermolecular interactions. These interactions include receptor binding, post-receptor effects, and chemical interactions.

Samples of these sorts of interactions include:-
  1. Drugs binding to an energetic site of an enzyme
  2. Drugs that interact with cell surface signaling proteins to disrupt downstream signaling, and
  3. Drugs that act by binding molecules like tumor necrosis factor.

What is Adverse Drug Reactions ?

An Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is defined as ‘an appreciably harmful or unpleasant reaction resulting from an intervention associated with the employment of a medicinal product; adverse effects usually predict hazard from future administration and warrant prevention, or specific treatment, or alteration of the dosage regimen, or withdrawal of the product’.

Since 2012, the definition has included reactions occurring as a results of error, misuse or abuse, and to suspected reactions to medicines that are unlicensed or being employed off-label additionally to the authorized use of a medicinal product in normal doses. While this transformation potentially alters the reporting and surveillance applied by manufactures and medicines regulators, in clinical practice it mustn't affect our approach to managing ADRs.

What is Drug Interactions ?

Drug interactions may make your drug less effective, cause unexpected side effects, or increase the action of a selected drug. Some drug interactions can even be harmful to you. Reading the label on every occasion you utilize a nonprescription or prescription medicine and taking the time to find out about drug interactions is also critical to your health. you'll reduce the danger of probably harmful drug interactions and side effects with a bit little bit of knowledge and customary sense.