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Syllabus of Unit 4 :-

Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system :-
  1. Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S.special emphasis on importance of various neurotransmitters like with GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, serotonin, dopamine.
  2. General anesthetics and pre-anesthetics.
  3. Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants.
  4. Anti-epileptics
  5. Alcohols and disulfiram

1. General anesthetics

General Anesthesia may be a combination of medicines that put you during a sleep-like state before a surgery or other procedure. Under anesthesia, you do not feel pain because you're completely unconscious. general anaesthesia usually uses a mix of intravenous drugs and inhaled gasses (anesthetics).
General anesthesia is over just being asleep, though it'll likely feel that thanks to you. But the anesthetized brain doesn't reply to pain signals or reflexes.
An anesthesiologist could be a specially trained doctor who focuses on anesthesia. While you're under anesthesia, the anesthesiologist monitors your body's vital functions and manages your breathing.

2. Pre-Anesthesia

These drugs are used before the administration of an anesthetic to improve patient comfort, reduce possible side effects such as Post anesthetic shivering, relieve pain, and increase the effectiveness of the anesthetic.

3. Sedatives

Sedatives are used to treat varying conditions; a few common examples include anxiety, tension, seizures, panic disorders and sleep disorders. Most sedatives that are used for recreational purposes have been diverted from medical use.

4. Hypnotics

Hypnotics are medications wont to induce, extend, or improve the standard of sleep, and to cut back wakefulness during sleep. the foremost commonly used hypnotics include benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BzRAs), antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihistamines, and melatonin (or melatonin receptor agonists). γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptors play a prominent role within the neurophysiology of the BzRAs, whereas the opposite hypnotics utilize numerous neurotransmitters within distinct anatomical regions. the assorted hypnotic classes differ in their effects on sleep parameters.

5. Anti-epileptics

Antieplieptic medications don't cure epilepsy, but rather try to prevent seizures. properly speaking, these medications are antiseizure or anticonvulsant, instead of antiepileptic. Antiepileptic medications don't alter the underlying problem predisposing to seizures. People with epilepsy are prescribed antiepileptic medications with the aim of decreasing the amount, severity, and/or duration of seizures. While seizure freedom is that the ideal outcome of treatment, seizures can still occur while taking antiepileptic medication.