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Syllabus of Unit 5 :-

Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system :-
  1. Psychopharmacological agents : Antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety agents, anti-manics and hallucinogens.
  2. Drugs used in Parkinsons disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
  3. CNS stimulants and nootropics.
  4. Opioid analgesics and antagonists
  5. Drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence

1. Antipsychotics

Antipsychotics, also called neuroleptics, are a category of psychotropic medication primarily wont to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia but also during a range of other psychotic disorders. they're also the mainstay along with mood stabilizers within the treatment of emotional disorder.

The use of antipsychotics may end in many unwanted side effects like involuntary movement disorders, gynecomastia, impotence, weight gain and metabolic syndrome. Long-term use can produce adverse effects like dyskinesia, tardive dystonia, and tardive akathisia.

2. Antidepressants

Antidepressants are a type of medicine used to treat clinical depression. They can also be used to treat a number of other conditions, including:
  1. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
  2. Generalized anxiety disorder
  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  4. Antidepressants are also sometimes used to treat people with long-term (chronic) pain.

3. Anti-anxiety agents

Anxiolytics (also termed anti-anxiety or anti-panic drugs) are medications that are accustomed treat a health condition called anxiety. the sort of hysteria that needs treatment is termed generalized mental disorder (GAD). This disorder causes excessive worry and anxiety, significant distress, and affects the power of an individual to function. Moreover, the symptoms of tension occur on most days for a minimum of six months. Generalized mental disturbance is treated with psychotherapy and medications.

4. Hallucinogens

Hallucinogens are a various group of medication that alter a person’s awareness of their surroundings still as their own thoughts and feelings. they're commonly split into two categories: classic hallucinogens (such as LSD) and dissociative drugs (such as PCP). Both styles of hallucinogens can cause hallucinations, or sensations and pictures that appear real though they're not. Additionally, dissociative drugs can cause users to check out of control or disconnected from their body and environment.

Some hallucinogens are extracted from plants or mushrooms, and a few are synthetic (human-made). Historically, people have used hallucinogens for religious or healing rituals. More recently, people report using these drugs for social or recreational purposes, including to own fun, cope with stress, have spiritual experiences, or simply to feel different.