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 Update Date  August 20, 2022
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Summary of Drug Acting on Cardiovascular System :-

  1. The cardiovascular system refers to the heart, blood vessels and the blood.
  2. Blood contains oxygen and other nutrients which your body needs to survive.
  3. The body takes these essential nutrients from the blood. At the same time, the body dumps waste products like carbon dioxide, back into the blood, so they can be removed.
  4. The main function of the cardiovascular system is therefore to maintain blood flow to all parts of the body, to allow it to survive.

The major functions of the cardiovascular system are :-
  1. To transport nutrients, gases and waste products around the body.
  2. To protect the body from infection and blood loss.
  3. To help the body maintain a constant body temperature ('thermoregulation')
  4. To maintain fluid balance within the body.

  1. The heart is a muscular organ which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The pumped blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body.
  2. The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a fist.
  3. It is a very strong muscle. It is on the left side of the body in humans.

  1. The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the human body.
  2. These vessels transport blood cells, nutrients, and oxygen to the tissues of the body.
  3. They also take waste and carbon dioxide away from the tissues. Blood vessels are needed to sustain life, because all of the body's tissues rely on their functionality.

  1. Where the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to various parts of the body.
  2. As a result of this condition blood supply decreases to various parts of the body.

  1. It is characterized by deposition of lipids and lipid related materials like cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins in blood vessels specially coronary blood vessels.
  2. As a result of this condition blood supply decreases to heart.

  1. Resting membrane potential for cardiac cell is -90 mV.
  2. Action potential/ impulse generation begins with the opening of sodium channels.
  3. Due to opening of sodium channels influx of sodium ions will take place as a result potential will be increases (Phase 0).
  4. Sodium ions enter into the cell at a very faster rate of 107 ions/sec. 
  5. After some time sodium channels will be closed and potassium channels will be opened because of which potential will be decreases (Phase 1).
  6. After some time opening of calcium channels will take place when potassium channels are in open state as a result influx of calcium and efflux of potassium ions take place, so there is no change in the potential and called as Plateau Phase (Phase 2).
  7. After some time, Calcium channels will be closed and only opening of potassium channels hence there is continuous efflux of potassium ions and potential will be decreases (Phase 3).
  8. At this stage sodium is present inside and potassium is present outside and finally there is an activation of the enzyme Na+ K+ ATPase which will keep potassium inside and sodium out side, cell reaches resting state (Phase 4)