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## Syllabus of Unit 2 :-

1. Rheology : Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature, non-Newtonian systems, pseudo plastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling Sphere, rotational viscometers

2. Deformation of solids : Plastic and elastic deformation, Heckle equation, Stress, Strain, Elastic Modulus

## 1. Rheology

Rheology is that the science of measurement of deformation. Virtually all materials deform in response to an imposed stress (‘everything breaks if you hit it hard enough’) and also the materials present within the eye range from liquid-like to soft-solid behavior.

## 2. Newtonian systems

A Newtonian fluid could be a fluid within which the viscous stresses arising from its flow are at every point linearly correlated to the local strain rate - the speed of change of its deformation over time. Stresses are proportional to the speed of change of the fluid's velocity vector.

## 3. Thixotropy

Thixotropy could be a time-dependent shear thinning property. Certain gels or fluids that are thick or viscous under static conditions will flow (become thinner, less viscous) over time when shaken, agitated, shear-stressed, or otherwise stressed (time-dependent viscosity). They then take a set time to return to a more viscous state.

## 4. Deformation of solids

The shape of an object is that the geometrical description of the a part of the space occupied by the item, as determined by its external boundaries. A change in shape thanks to the applying of force is thought as deformation. Even small forces are known to cause some deformation. Objects under the actions of external forces undergo deformation. this could be squashing, twisting, ripping, or pulling apart the item.

## 5. Elastic Modulus

An coefficient of elasticity (also referred to as modulus of elasticity) is that the unit of measurement of an object's or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied thereto. The modulus of an object is defined because the slope of its stress–strain curve within the elastic deformation region: A stiffer material will have a better modulus of elasticity.