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Syllabus of Unit 4 :-

Micromeretics : Particle size and distribution, mean particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle size by different methods, counting and separation method, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.

1. Micromeretics

The word Micromeretics refers to a discipline of science and technology that deals with studies associated with the basic also derived properties of particles. a certain knowledge of the particles size is of supreme importance within the pharmaceutical and materials science. it's related on to the physical, chemical, moreover as pharmacological characteristics of a vigorous pharmaceutical ingredient (API).

2. Flow Properties of Powders

Flow properties of powders are basically mechanical properties. The behaviors of bulk powders are abundantly like the non-Newtonian fluids thanks to its plastic flow and dilatancy. The iteration of particles is influenced by the attractive forces, like van der waals, particle size, shape, porosity, moisture content and bulk density.

1. Particle Size
Very fine particles possess attractive forces like Van Der Waals, electrostatics, physical phenomenon etc. and resulting cohesion of powder and poor flow properties. As particle size increases, flow of the powders also increases and after certain level works as free flowing. Appropriate blend of coarse and fine particles or in other words selection of particle size distribution improves the flow properties.

2. Surface Texture of The Particles
Smooth surface of particle increases the flow properties, however the rough surface is that the reason of poor flow ability because of friction. Flat and elongated particles give high porosity and low flow property. In contrast, high density and low porosity provide good flow property. Powder flow properties is improved by processing the granules in spherical shape.

3. Moisture Content
The higher the number of moisture, greater the danger of cohesion and adhesion. The GranuMidity is one such instrument, which may help to know the influence of moisture on the powder flow properties like electric charge. Incorporating optimum flow additive, like magnesium stearate, talc etc. improves the powder flow ability.