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Syllabus of Unit 3 :-

Heterocyclic compounds
  1. Nomenclature and classification
  2. Synthesis, reactions and medicinal uses of following compounds/derivatives
  3. Pyrrole, Furan, and Thiophene
  4. Relative Aromaticity and reactivity of Pyrrole, Furan and Thiophene

1. Heterocyclic Compound

Heterocyclic compounds possess a cyclic structure with two or more different types of atoms within the ring. This work is dedicated to organic heterocyclic compounds during which the ring contains a minimum of one carbon atom; all atoms aside from carbon are considered as heteroatoms.

Carbon continues to be far and away the foremost common ring atom in heterocyclic compounds, but the amount and sort of heteroatoms within the rings of known compounds has increased because the years pass and thus there's a gradual transition to incorporate the expanding domain of inorganic heterocyclic systems. Since rings are often of any size, from three-membered upwards, and since the heteroatoms is drawn in almost any combination from an oversized number of the weather (though nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur are still out and away the foremost common), the amount of possible heterocyclic systems is sort of limitless.

An enormous number of heterocyclic compounds is understood and this number continues to extend very rapidly.

2. Pyrrole

Pyrrole could be a heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound, a five-membered ring with the formula C4H4NH. it's a colorless volatile liquid that darkens readily upon exposure to air. Substituted derivatives are called pyrroles, e.g., N-methylpyrrole, C4H4NCH3. Pyrroles are components of more complex macrocycles, including the porphyrinogens and products derived therefrom, including porphyrins of heme, the chlorins, bacteriochlorins, and chlorophylls.

3. Furan

Furan may be a heterocyclic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. Chemical compounds containing such rings are said as furans.

Furan could be a colorless, flammable, highly volatile liquid with a boiling point near temperature. it's soluble in common organic solvents, including alcohol, ether, and acetone, and is slightly soluble in water. Its odor is "strong, ethereal; chloroform-like". it's toxic and will be carcinogenic in humans.

4. Thiophene

Thiophene may be a heterocyclic with the formula C4H4S. Consisting of a planar five-membered ring, it's aromatic as indicated by its extensive substitution reactions. it's a colorless liquid with a benzene-like odor. In most of its reactions, it resembles benzene. Compounds analogous to thiophene include furan (C4H4O), selenophene (C4H4Se) and pyrrole (C4H4NH), which each vary by the heteroatom within the ring.