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Syllabus of Remedial Biology

  • Living world
    • Definition and characters of living organism
    • Diversity in the living world
    • Binomial nomenclature
    • Five kingdoms of life and basis of classification. Salient features of Monera, Potista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae, Virus,
  • Morphology of Flowering plants
    • Morphology of different parts of flowering plants - Root, stem, inflorescence, flower, leaf, fruit, seed.
    • General Anatomy of Root, stem, leaf of monocotyledons & Dicotylidones.

  • Body fluids and circulation
    • Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood
    • Composition and functions of lymph
    • Human circulatory system
    • Structure of human heart and blood vessels
    • Cardiac cycle, cardiac output and ECG
  • Digestion and Absorption
    • Human alimentary canal and digestive glands
    • Role of digestive enzymes
    • Digestion, absorption and assimilation of digested food
  • Breathing and respiration
    • Human respiratory system
    • Mechanism of breathing and its regulation
    • Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration
    • Respiratory volumes

  • Excretory products and their elimination
    • Modes of excretion
    • Human excretory system- structure and function
    • Urine formation
    • Rennin angiotensin system
  • Neural control and coordination
    • Definition and classification of nervous system
    • Structure of a neuron
    • Generation and conduction of nerve impulse
    • Structure of brain and spinal cord
    • Functions of cerebrum, cerebellum, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata
  • Chemical coordination and regulation
    • Endocrine glands and their secretions
    • Functions of hormones secreted by endocrine glands
  • Human reproduction
    • Parts of female reproductive system
    • Parts of male reproductive system
    • Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
    • Menstrual cycle

  • Plants and mineral nutrition
    • Essential mineral, macro and micronutrients
    • Nitrogen metabolism, Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation
  • Photosynthesis
    • Autotrophic nutrition, photosynthesis, Photosynthetic pigments, Factors affecting photosynthesis.

  • Plant respiration : Respiration, glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic).
  • Plant growth and development
    • Phases and rate of plant growth, Condition of growth, Introduction to plant growth regulators
  • Cell - The unit of life
    • Structure and functions of cell and cell organelles, Cell division
  • Tissues
    • Definition, types of tissues, location and functions.